Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Separation of Power Plays an Important Role in the...

The doctrine of separation of powers plays an important role from a constitutional perspective. In defining the term it can be seen within a vast multitude of legal text as the â€Å"constitutional principal limiting powers vested in an institution or person. The functions of governmental authority is divided into three categories; inspired by French jurist Montesquieu (1689- 1755), the legislative, executive and judiciary as separate branches exists in many countries. In Trinidad and Tobago these branches are defined as the Legislative in the form of Parliament, the Executive as the Government and the Judiciary as the courts. Reflected by chapter 4 part I of The Constitution of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Act 4 of 1976, composition of†¦show more content†¦Important acts of the President can only be exercised as identified in 80 (1) .... in accordance with the advice if Cabinet or a Minister acting under the general authority of the Cabinet. The Cabinet consists of elected members where its election principle includes the percentage of votes each candidate received in the last election. They are responsible for formulating methods to implement the laws passed by Parliament; however it is noteworthy that these elected members can be at any time dismissed by the Prime Minister. The Judiciary of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is the last of the three mentioned arms of the state, it is headed by the Chief Justice, and the judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of Judicature, the Magistracy and the Privy Council. The Constitution seeks to ensure the independence of the Judiciary by various means, including prohibiting the abolition of judges’ posts or reduction of their salaries. Section 99 of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago constitution it states: â€Å"There shall be a Supreme Court of Trinidad and Tobago consisting of a High Court (hereinafter referred to as â€Å"the High Court†) and a Court of Appeal with such jurisdiction and powers as conferred on these Courts respectively by this Constitution or any other law.† The Chief Justice is appointed by the President after consultation with the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition, but may only be removed byShow MoreRelatedCxc Mutipe Choice Questions13016 Words   |  53 PagesAugust, 1962 b) May, 1961 c) July, 1963 d) July, 1974. The four countries that attended the first Heads of Government Conference were: a) Jamaica, Guyana, Grenada and Barbados b) Barbados, Jamaica, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago c) Barbados, Jamaica, Guyana and Belize d) Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Jamaica and St. Lucia. Carifta came into being on: a) May 1, 1968 b) July 1, 1968 c) August 1, 1968 d) May 1, 1971. After the inception of Carifta, three functional institution were set up except:Read MoreA001426633 Corporate Governance Assignment3332 Words   |  14 Pagesrecommendations for suggested improvement based on your review. Word Count: 2504 words Executive Summary The proliferation of corporate scandal has brought corporate governance into the spotlight. Stakeholders have now become more aware of the power and responsibility of the board of directors. As such emphasis is being placed on the review of the board of directors and the extent to which they exhibit good corporate citizenry. This paper seeks to function as a report to the chairman of the boardRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesPerception and Individual Decision Making 165 Motivation Concepts 201 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications 239 3 The Group 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Foundations of Group Behavior 271 Understanding Work Teams 307 Communication 335 Leadership 367 Power and Politics 411 Conflict and Negotiation 445 Foundations of Organization Structure 479 v vi BRIEF CONTENTS 4 The Organization System 16 Organizational Culture 511 17 Human Resource Policies and Practices 543 18 Organizational Change

Deception Point Page 81 Free Essays

â€Å"As you know,† the CIA director went on, his tone sharpening, â€Å"all U.S. government entities who deal with sensitive intelligence information are governed by strict rules of secrecy-military, CIA, NSA, NRO-all of them must abide by stringent laws regarding the concealment of the data they glean and the technologies they develop. We will write a custom essay sample on Deception Point Page 81 or any similar topic only for you Order Now I ask you all, yet again, why NASA-the agency currently producing the largest portion of cutting-edge aerospace, imaging, flight, software, reconnaissance, and telecom technologies used by the military and intelligence community-exists outside this umbrella of secrecy.† The President heaved a weighty sigh. The proposal was clear. Restructure NASA to become part of the U.S. military intelligence community. Although similar restructurings had happened with other agencies in the past, Herney refused to entertain the idea of placing NASA under the auspices of the Pentagon, the CIA, the NRO, or any other military directive. The National Security Council was starting to splinter on the issue, many siding with the intelligence community. Lawrence Ekstrom never looked pleased at these meetings, and this was no exception. He shot an acrimonious glare toward the CIA director. â€Å"At the risk of repeating myself, sir, the technologies NASA develops are for nonmilitary, academic applications. If your intelligence community wants to turn one of our space telescopes around and look at China, that’s your choice.† The CIA director looked like he was about to boil over. Pickering caught his eye and stepped in. â€Å"Larry,† he said, careful to keep an even tone, â€Å"every year NASA kneels before Congress and begs for money. You’re running operations with too little funding, and you’re paying the price in failed missions. If we incorporate NASA into the intelligence community, NASA will no longer need to ask Congress for help. You would be funded by the black budget at significantly higher levels. It’s a win-win. NASA will have the money it needs to run itself properly, and the intelligence community will have peace of mind that NASA technologies are protected.† Ekstrom shook his head. â€Å"On principle, I cannot endorse painting NASA with that brush. NASA is about space science; we have nothing to do with national security.† The CIA director stood up, something never done when the President was seated. Nobody stopped him. He glared down at the administrator of NASA. â€Å"Are you telling me you think science has nothing to do with national security? Larry, they are synonymous, for God’s sake! It is only this country’s scientific and technological edge that keeps us secure, and whether we like it or not, NASA is playing a bigger and bigger part in developing those technologies. Unfortunately, your agency leaks like a sieve and has proven time and again that its security is a liability!† The room fell silent. Now the administrator of NASA stood up and locked eyes with his attacker. â€Å"So you suggest locking twenty thousand NASA scientists in airtight military labs and making them work for you? Do you really think NASA’s newest space telescopes would have been conceived had it not been for our scientists’ personal desire to see deeper into space? NASA makes astonishing breakthroughs for one reason only-our employees want to understand the cosmos more deeply. They are a community of dreamers who grew up staring at starry skies and asking themselves what was up there. Passion and curiosity are what drive NASA’s innovation, not the promise of military superiority.† Pickering cleared his throat, speaking softly, trying to lower the temperatures around the table. â€Å"Larry, I’m certain the director is not talking about recruiting NASA scientists to build military satellites. Your NASA mission statement would not change. NASA would carry on business as usual, except you would have increased funding and increased security.† Pickering turned now to the President. â€Å"Security is expensive. Everyone in this room certainly realizes that NASA’s security leaks are a result of underfunding. NASA has to toot its own horn, cut corners on security measures, run joint projects with other countries so they can share the price tag. I am proposing that NASA remain the superb, scientific, nonmilitary entity it currently is, but with a bigger budget, and some discretion.† Several members of the security council nodded in quiet agreement. President Herney stood slowly, staring directly at William Pickering, clearly not at all amused with the way Pickering had just taken over. â€Å"Bill, let me ask you this: NASA is hoping to go to Mars in the next decade. How will the intelligence community feel about spending a hefty portion of the black budget running a mission to Mars-a mission that has no immediate national security benefits?† â€Å"NASA will be able to do as they please.† â€Å"Bullshit,† Herney replied flatly. Everyone’s eyes shot up. President Herney seldom used profanity. â€Å"If there is one thing I’ve learned as president,† Herney declared, â€Å"it’s that those who control the dollars control the direction. I refuse to put NASA’s purse strings in the hands of those who do not share the objectives for which the agency was founded. I can only imagine how much pure science would get done with the military deciding which NASA missions are viable.† Herney’s eyes scanned the room. Slowly, purposefully, he returned his rigid gaze to William Pickering. â€Å"Bill,† Herney sighed, â€Å"your displeasure that NASA is engaged in joint projects with foreign space agencies is painfully shortsighted. At least someone is working constructively with the Chinese and Russians. Peace on this planet will not be forged by military strength. It will be forged by those who come together despite their governments’ differences. If you ask me, NASA’s joint missions do more to promote national security than any billion-dollar spy satellite, and with a hell of a lot better hope for the future.† Pickering felt an anger welling deep within him. How dare a politician talk down to me this way! Herney’s idealism played fine in a boardroom, but in the real world, it got people killed. â€Å"Bill,† Marjorie Tench interrupted, as if sensing Pickering was about to explode, â€Å"we know you lost a child. We know this is a personal issue for you.† Pickering heard nothing but condescension in her tone. â€Å"But please remember,† Tench said, â€Å"that the White House is currently holding back a floodgate of investors who want us to open space to the private sector. If you ask me, for all its mistakes, NASA has been one hell of a friend to the intel community. You all might just want to count your blessings.† A rumble strip on the shoulder of the highway jolted Pickering’s mind back to the present. His exit was coming up. As he approached the exit for D.C., he passed a bloody deer lying dead by the side of the road. He felt an odd hesitation†¦ but he kept driving. He had a rendezvous to keep. 96 The Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial is one of the largest memorials in the nation. With a park, waterfalls, statuary, alcoves, and basin, the memorial is divided into four outdoor galleries, one for each of FDR’s terms in office. A mile from the memorial, a lone Kiowa Warrior coasted in, high over the city, its running lights dimmed. In a town boasting as many VIPs and media crews as D.C., helicopters in the skies were as common as birds flying south. Delta-One knew that as long as he stayed well outside what was known as â€Å"the dome†-a bubble of protected airspace around the White House-he should draw little attention. They would not be here long. The Kiowa was at twenty-one hundred feet when it slowed adjacent to, but not directly over, the darkened FDR Memorial. Delta-One hovered, checking his position. He looked to his left, where Delta-Two was manning the night vision telescopic viewing system. The video feed showed a greenish image of the entry drive of the memorial. The area was deserted. How to cite Deception Point Page 81, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Ramses the 2nd Essay Example

Ramses the 2nd Essay Ramses the 2nd ruled for about 70 years. He was the third Pharaoh of the 19th dynasty. Ramses the 2nd always fought for more terrority in Africa, Asia, Asia Minor and Arab Countries. Ramses had declared a war on the Hitties, of the Asia Minor and Northern Asia. Hitties were strong warriors and very technologically advanced. The longest war was fought in 1274 @ Kadesh. ( Pharaoh 2 (Ramses) ).Ramses the 2nd ruled during the new kingdom, which reigned from 1550-1070 B.C.E. Living in the new kingdom he dispersed his power very far, making his nation the strongest of the ancient world. He was wed to over 100 wives and fathered over 90 children. Archeologists who searched his tomb found him to be very colorful. (Page 68 of the history text book). Ramses was very cocky in a sense he wanted to prove to the people that he was very heroic and very valiant. He did this I believe to make the crowd love him. Crowds love victories, and if you were victorious then you would be loved. Scholars soug ht to call him Ramses the Great because he was so into himself. ( page 68 ).Ramses was one of the most successful Pharaohs in the sense that he would build such massive temples for not many reasons but just to honor the gods and to have him seen as such a glorious ruler. Ramses 2nd has a very big nose, which comes from the rameside kings. Ramses, the warrior he was even gave diplomacy a chance making thefirst NAP or Non Aggression Act. Which means that they signed a treaty saying, simply they will show no aggression towards each other and to give support if being attacked by enemies.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Racism Essays - Discrimination, Racism, Hatred, Free Essays

Racism Essays - Discrimination, Racism, Hatred, Free Essays Racism Racism is an evil that can destroy socitiy. America is a nation of immigrants and, as such it?s a diverse society where racism and prejudice have no place. Everyone came here from somewhere. Our country is based on the phrase, ?All men are created equal.? We are a diverse nation where racism and prejudice are unwarranted. Racism hurts people. Racism has been present in our world for more than 3,000 years. Take African-Americans, before the Million Man March, Martin Luther King and the civil rights movement, black people were given less respect than dogs. For the first century of our country?s existence, blacks were slaves with no rights. Even after the Civil War freed them, there was no equal opportunity and much oppression of them by whites, particularly in the South. They were constant targets of violence and were put to death by racist hate groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and Nazis. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.?s civil rights movement was the first step towards a truly de-segregated America. If it had not been for people like Dr. King, Maya Angelou and other strong-willed and just people, the country would probably still have two types of rest rooms one for whites and one for blacks. Racism has been running rampant in our country through out history. In the United States during World War II, citizens of Japanese origin were taken form their homes on the West Coast and moved to inland camps by our government because, after the Japanese attack on pearl Harbor, our -2- government made a generalization abut the Japanese. It decided that the Japanese Americans were a threat and so they decided to put them in camps. These camps were internment camps, not harsh like concentration camps, but devastating for people who considered themselves and were every bit as loyal citizens as the people who were incarcerating them. In society today people look for an easy way out of problems. Most of the time, they can just blame their problems on other people or other races, just as the Nazis did with the Jews, the Gypsies and others in Nazi Germany. Hitler was scared of different people so he felt he had to exterminate 6 million of them. When people behave in this prejudiced way, they just make themselves seem ignorant. One of the darkest periods in American history was when we massacred the American Indians so we could settle their lands. Why did we betray and kill the Indians? We killed them because they were different, because we were afraid of them and because we wanted their land. People assume because they were not white and were not as industrialized as white people that they were a lesser race. After we massacred most of the Indians we put the remanning on reservations specifically for Indians. People who are racist or prejudice are ignorant and do not see what Indians can contribute to the country. By killing the Indians the world was deprived of what the Indians might of contributed. If people could see beyond ethnic origin racism would not be a problem.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Hideki Tojo

Hideki Tojo On December 23, 1948, the United States executed a frail, bespectacled man of almost 64 years.   The prisoner, Hideki Tojo, had been convicted of war crimes by the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, and he would be the highest-ranking officer from Japan to be executed.   To his dying day, Tojo maintained that The Greater East Asia War was justified and righteous.   However, he did apologize for the atrocities commited by Japanese troops during the Second World War.    Who was Hideki Tojo? Hideki Tojo (December 30, 1884 - December 23, 1948) was a leading figure of the Japanese government as a general of the Imperial Japanese Army, leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association, and 27th Prime Minister of Japan from October 17, 1941 to July 22, 1944.  It was Tojo who, as Prime Minister, was responsible for ordering the attack on Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, 1941. The day after the attack, President Franklin D. Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan, officially bringing the  United States into World War II.   Ã‚   Hideki Tojo was born in 1884 to a military family of  samurai  descent. His father was one of the first generation of military men since the Imperial Japanese Army had replaced  samurai warriors after the Meiji Restoration.   Tojo graduated with honors from the army war college in 1915 and quickly climbed the military  ranks. He was known within the army as Razor Tojo for his bureaucratic efficiency,  strict attention to detail, and unwavering adherence to protocol. He was extremely loyal to the Japanese nation and the army, and in his rise to leadership within Japans military and government he became a symbol for Japans militarism and parochialism. With his unique appearance of close-cropped hair, mustache, and round eyeglasses he became the caricature by Allied propagandists of Japans military dictatorship during the Pacific war.   At the end of World War II, Tojo was arrested, tried, sentenced to death for war crimes, and hanged. Early Military Career In 1935, Tojo assumed command of the Kwangtung Armys Kempetai or military police force in Manchuria.   The Kempetai was not an ordinary military police command - it functioned more like a secret police, such as the Gestapo or the Stassi. In 1937, Tojo was promoted once more to Chief of Staff of the Kwangtung Army. July of that year saw his only actual combat experience, when he led a brigade into Inner Mongolia. The Japanese defeated Chinese Nationalist and Mongolian forces, and established a puppet state called the Mongol United Autonomous Government. By 1938, Hideki Tojo was recalled to Toyko to serve as army vice minister in the Emperors Cabinet.   In July of 1940, he was promoted to army minister in the second Fumimaroe Konoe government.   In that role, Tojo advocated an alliance with Nazi Germany, and also with Fascist Italy. Meanwhile relations with the United States worsened as Japanese troops moved south into Indochina. Although Konoe considered negotiations with the United States, Tojo advocated against them, espousing war unless the United States withdrew its embargo on all exports to Japan.   Konoe disagreed, and resigned.   Prime Minister of Japan Without giving up his post of army minister, Tojo was made the prime minister of Japan in October 1941.   At different points during World War II, he would also serve as the minister of home affairs, education, munitions, foreign affairs, and commerce and industry.    In December of 1941, Prime Minister Tojo gave the green light to a plan for simultaneous attacks on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; Thailand; British Malaya; Singapore; Hong Kong; Wake Island; Guam; and the Philippines.   Japans rapid success and lightning-fast Southern Expansion made Tojo immensely popular with the ordinary people. Although Tojo had public support, was hungry for power, and was adept at gathering the reins into his own hands, he never was able to establish a true fascist dictatorship like those of his heros, Hitler and Mussolini.   The Japanese power structure, headed by the emperor-god Hirohito, prevented him from attaining complete control.   Even at the height of his influence, the court system, the navy, industry, and of course Emperor Hirohito himself remained outside of Tojos control.   In July of 1944, the tide of war had turned against Japan and against Hideki Tojo.   When Japan lost Saipan to the advancing Americans, the emperor forced Tojo out of power.   After the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August of 1945, and Japans surrender, Tojo knew that he would likely be arrested by the American Occupation authorities. Trial and Death As the Americans closed in, Tojo had a friendly doctor draw a large charcoal X on his chest to mark where his heart was.   He then went into a separate room and shot himself squarely through the mark.   Unfortunately for him, the bullet somehow missed his heart and went through his stomach instead.   When the Americans arrived to arrest him, they found him laying on a bed, bleeding profusely.   Im very sorry that it is taking me so long to die, he told them.   The Americans rushed him to emergency surgery, saving his life. Hideki Tojo was tried before the International Military Tribunal for the Far East for war crimes.   In his testimony, he took every opportunity to assert his own guilt, and claimed that the Emperor was blameless.   This was convenient for the Americans, who had already decided that they did not dare hang the Emperor for fear of a popular revolt.   Tojo was found guilty of seven counts of war crimes, and on November 12, 1948, he was sentenced to death by hanging. Tojo was hanged on December 23, 1948.   In his final statement, he asked the Americans to show mercy to the Japanese people, who had suffered devastating losses in the war, as well as the two atomic bombings.   Tojos ashes are divided between the Zoshigaya Cemetery in Tokyo and the controversial Yasukuni Shrine; he is one of fourteen class A war criminals enshrined there.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

How Title IX has Affected Public Policies in the U.S Research Paper

How Title IX has Affected Public Policies in the U.S - Research Paper Example Membership in women’s athletics has grown due to numerous factors. The leading cause is the far-reaching transformation in society’s treatment of and outlooks toward women, as well as a new awareness of women of their own athletic abilities and involvement (Mezey & Gluck 2003). Basically, the boost in membership of women in athletic programs and the increase in public policies addressing sex discrimination in education institutions began since the inception of Title IX. History of Title IX The Congress in 1972 endorsed Title IX of the Educational Amendments. Since 1972, the development toward sex equity in school athletic programs has been notable, although not without its problems, limitations, and flaws. Although the first guideline about the execution of Title IX was not made public until 1975 and colleges and high schools were granted until 1978 to meet the terms, its enactment conveyed a direct notice to athletic courses all over the nation (Carpenter & Acosta 2005 ). The law at this time clearly declared that women cannot be singled out or unfairly treated in any school activity or program where the school obtained federal support. Soon after, participation of women in athletic programs skyrocketed (Zimbalist 1999, 58): In 1971, 294,015 girls participated in high school sports; that number increased 2.8 times to 817,073 in 1973, and to 2.08 million in 1978. At the college level, 31,852 took part in varsity sports in 1971, and by 1977 the number had more than doubled to 64,375. Nevertheless, this initial thrust was not maintained as incompetent implementation machinery and legal barriers weakened the prospects of Title IX. The Office of Civil Rights (OCR) of the U.S. Department of Education, the department assigned to address sex... How Title IX has Affected Public Policies in the U.S.? Title IX has indeed changed public policy in the United States. Thus, this essay discusses how Title IX has influenced American public policy. The existence of legal alternatives resulted in a heightened dependence on the legal institution to resolve the issue of sex discrimination. Women filed cases against unfair treatment and they were frequently victorious in their lawsuits. Yet, all over the mid-1980s, a series of problems overwhelmed the women’s movement (Blumenthal 2005). The unsuccessful ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment and constraints inflicted on the implementation of Title IX by the Grove City College—the school that declined to recognize a Title IX agreement form-- resolution of the Supreme Court brought the condition at a deadlock all over this period (Zimbalist 1999). Title IX has considerably enhanced employment and educational prospects for women. However, assessing the benefits and inequalities confirms that Title IX should be reinforced and implemented. The Office of Civil Rights should be aggressive and oblige schools to release information that shows how they have supported Title IX provisions. But, most importantly, public policy in the United States has been informed of the entire scope of Title IX safeguard, the benefits that women have gained consequently, and the problems that still exist. The effect of Title IX on civil rights policy and on the larger policy process cannot be miscalculated.

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Belief Systems Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Belief Systems - Research Paper Example The Belief of Dharma The concept of living the good life under the form of dharma is most often attributed to the Eastern religions of Buddhism and Hinduism. The philosophy is also one which is associated with lifestyles which one lives in order to pertains everything that is good. The basis of dharma is one which relates to serving and loving others. When one is able to do this, then they overcome karma, or mistakes they have learned in this or a past lifetime. If one has negative energy that comes back, then it is linked to karma which the individual creates. This usually is shown as a lesson or problem which one has in life. However, if one serves and does something good, then it is associated with dharma. One is then able to receive rewards and blessings within their life through the services that they offer to others. The good life is one which then relates to the idea of happiness and being able to create a reality that is positive through the use of dharma. Happiness is able t o become the luxury that one creates within their own life (Schoch, 4). Obeying the Laws of God The concept of living the Laws of God for the good life is one which is associated with Biblical scripture and Western systems. The forms of thought are based on the philosophies of morality and being virtuous with how one decides to live. The laws of God are linked to treating others as they treat you, caring for others and living with happiness and spiritual prosperity. The Ten Commandments are often associated with this concept and are perceived with following Gods laws to receive eternal blessings and life. The interpretation is one which creates the laws by building security and safety around treating others in a given manner and in being content with the things which God gives in return. The mentality that is followed then outlines specific ideologies of what one should or should not do within society and how this benefits one through a secure and peaceful life which is given by God (Whybray, 5). Similarities in the Good Life The concepts which are associated with both dharma and the Laws of God are structured first around the way in which others should be treated. In both the principles of dharma and the Laws of God there is an implication that one receives rewards and blessings from God or the universe. However, this is dependent on how one treats others, either through forms of service or by following the laws of being righteous. Each have the golden rule of treating others as they treat you while receiving rewards from spirituality when this is done. The foundation of both becomes the same with serving others and treating all with love. This is combined with the understanding that the more this is done, one will have more opportunities to receive the rewards and blessings from the hierarchy of God or the universe. The blessings in both are also similar, specifically based on the ideologies of peace, happiness and security in one’s life (Kazez, 46). Not only is there a direct association with the mechanics of following certain laws to receive blessings from a higher being and associating this with service. Both dharma and the